Saturday, August 17, 2019

Dental Caries

Dental Caries is a chronic disease of childhood that has reached epidemic proportions (Garcia-Cortes et al., 2014). The oral health of children is critical for their overall well-being with prompt diagnosis and early management being a key to the success of this approach. Despite significant progress in reducing oral diseases in developed countries over the past three decades, dental caries remains a significant public health problem, particularly amongst disadvantaged people and people living in remote areas (Estai et al., 2017c). Saudi Arabia is a large country with over 700 towns and villages. Despite the growth of dentistry in the Kingdom, there are still very few areas with specialized pediatric dental care. Specialists tend to be concentrated in the major towns and cities (AlShammery, 2016a). This increases the challenge of providing high quality pediatric dental care to every part of the Kingdom. This is a problem, as it is documented that a lack of dental care to the primary teeth will increase the risk of dental problems in the permanent teeth (Li and Wang, 2002). Pediatric dentistry is a complex field with the interaction of many different specialties. Children require not only restorative and endodontic care to the primary teeth but also require consultations from endodontists, prosthodontists and orthodontists on the condition of the tooth and future treatment planning. It is very difficult to locate such multi-disciplinary care even in smaller towns and almost impossible to obtain in remote villages of the Kingdom (AlShammery, 2016a). As a result of this maldistribution in the dental workforce, many rural and remote communities in are left underserved, leading to untreated oral disease (Estai et al., 2017b). Workforce shortages, sparsely populated regions, funding challenges and the decreasing cost of and advances in technology, have resulted in an increased interest in the adoption of telemedicine services (Bradley et al., 2010). The use of role substitution in dentistry is not a new concept. One of the potentially viable solutions to address geographical hurdles and the unavailability of dentists is mobile teledentistry (Estai et al., 2016b). Teledentistry allows local service providers to see advice from specialists without the patient having to leave the local practice (Marino et al., 2016).Teledentistry is a domain of telemedicine that emerges from the combination of information communication technology (ICT) and dentistry. For several decades, telemedicine has played a role in bridging gaps and overcoming barriers related to distance through expanding care access to unreachable populations (Estai et al., 2016a). Teledentistry is defined as the use of electronic information and telecommunications technologies to support long-distance clinical oral health care, patient and professional health related education, public health, and health administration (Marino and Ghanim, 2013). It is one of a number of growing solutions to address limited access to dental care is the utilization of telemedicine technologies in the screening for oral diseases, providing care, evaluation of care and referral (Estai et al., 2016c). There are two telemedicine modalities: real-time consultation and store-and-forward. For most dental applications, the store-and-forward method provides excellent results without excessive costs for equipment or connectivity (Daniel and Kumar, 2014). Mobile teledentistry is a subset of telemedicine that incorporates cellular phone technology and store-and-forward telemedicine into oral care services. Almost all smartphones have a built-in camera and mobile connectivity and are readily accessible at a low cost. (Estai et al., 2016d). Despite dental photography becoming an integral part of daily dental practice, it has rarely been used as means of diagnosis, consultation, or referral in routine practice. However, evidence on the use of smartphone cameras in epidemiological dental research is rare (Estai et al., 2017b).Given the need for specialist consultation in the remote parts of Saudi Arabia, there is a need for a study to examine the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in the Kingdom. Since the mixed dentition is the period of maximum dental change for a child, this study focused on the use of mobile phone teledentistry in the mixed dentition.1.2 Aim of the StudyThe aim of the study is to test the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in diagnosis of dental caries of children in the mixed dentition.1.3 Specific Objective of the StudyThe study had the following specific objective, which is to compare the diagnosis of oral caries in the mixed dentition obtained via teledentistry to the diagnosis of these conditions obtained by physical clinical examination.The use of mobile phones and the sharing of photographic data on platforms such as WhatsAppâ„ ¢ or Instagramâ„ ¢ is a relatively new phenomenon. However, the field of teledentistry itself is not new. This literature review tracks the development of telemedicine and teledentistry. It also looks into the validity and reliability of diagnosis made using photographs. Lastly, it seeks to demonstrate the demographic and human resource challenges that highlight the need for teledentistry in Saudi Arabia.2.1 Development of TeledentistryThe development of telemedicine began in the 1960s, when the United States department of defense decided to establish a data base of interconnected networks to provide healthcare to troops stationed in remote locations (Rocca et al., 1999). The US Army conducted the first study of teledentistry at Fort Gordon, Georgia in July 1994. In this study a dental image management system was used in conjunction with an Intra-oral camera to capture color images of a patient's mouth. These images were then transmitted over a 9600 baud modem from the dental clinic in Fort McPherson, Georgia to Fort Gordon, a distance of 120 miles (Rocca et al., 1999).The initial set up for teledentistry, relied on communication via modems and wire based telephonic communication (Eraso et al., 1996). In the 1990s, the internet gained rapid popularity with the public revealing of the World Wide Web, an entity that had hitherto been a secret US army project. This led to the exploration of newer modes of transmitting data. Reviewing the existing systems of the time, Eraso et al (1996) looked at the effect of digitalizing and transmitting tomographic radiographs. Tomograms of the temporomandibular joint were digitized in three different formats using a PC-based system. The image resolution for various projections was determined at different camera-film distances. Three series of images were transmitted by telephone, and transmission times were measured. They found that while no difference in image quality was found between the initial digitized and the transmitted images; transmitted and transmitted-and-printed images were of significantly lower quality than the original radiographs or the digitized images viewed on a computer monitor (Eraso et al., 1996). In the late 1990s, the national electrical manufacturers association had developed a standard guideline for the storage and transmission of images. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for storing and transmitting medical images enabling the integration of medical imaging devices such as scanners, servers, workstations, printers, network hardware, and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) from multiple manufacturers. It has been widely adopted by hospitals, and is making inroads into smaller applications like dentists' and doctors' offices (Bauer and Brown, 2001, Folke, 2001, Chen and Chen, 2002). Chen and Chen (2002) compared DICOM images to existing videoconferencing techniques for the transmission of dental information. They found that DICOM images greatly reduced the cost of transmitting information without significantly compromising quality. The early part of the new millennium was characterized by the rapid spread of e-mail and electronic communications. The launch and spread of several free email providers such as Hotmailâ„ ¢, Gmailâ„ ¢, Yahooâ„ ¢ etc. meant that scanned images could be transmitted between persons without Dental Caries Dental Caries is a chronic disease of childhood that has reached epidemic proportions (Garcia-Cortes et al., 2014). The oral health of children is critical for their overall well-being with prompt diagnosis and early management being a key to the success of this approach. Despite significant progress in reducing oral diseases in developed countries over the past three decades, dental caries remains a significant public health problem, particularly amongst disadvantaged people and people living in remote areas (Estai et al., 2017c). Saudi Arabia is a large country with over 700 towns and villages. Despite the growth of dentistry in the Kingdom, there are still very few areas with specialized pediatric dental care. Specialists tend to be concentrated in the major towns and cities (AlShammery, 2016a). This increases the challenge of providing high quality pediatric dental care to every part of the Kingdom. This is a problem, as it is documented that a lack of dental care to the primary teeth will increase the risk of dental problems in the permanent teeth (Li and Wang, 2002). Pediatric dentistry is a complex field with the interaction of many different specialties. Children require not only restorative and endodontic care to the primary teeth but also require consultations from endodontists, prosthodontists and orthodontists on the condition of the tooth and future treatment planning. It is very difficult to locate such multi-disciplinary care even in smaller towns and almost impossible to obtain in remote villages of the Kingdom (AlShammery, 2016a). As a result of this maldistribution in the dental workforce, many rural and remote communities in are left underserved, leading to untreated oral disease (Estai et al., 2017b). Workforce shortages, sparsely populated regions, funding challenges and the decreasing cost of and advances in technology, have resulted in an increased interest in the adoption of telemedicine services (Bradley et al., 2010). The use of role substitution in dentistry is not a new concept. One of the potentially viable solutions to address geographical hurdles and the unavailability of dentists is mobile teledentistry (Estai et al., 2016b). Teledentistry allows local service providers to see advice from specialists without the patient having to leave the local practice (Marino et al., 2016).Teledentistry is a domain of telemedicine that emerges from the combination of information communication technology (ICT) and dentistry. For several decades, telemedicine has played a role in bridging gaps and overcoming barriers related to distance through expanding care access to unreachable populations (Estai et al., 2016a). Teledentistry is defined as the use of electronic information and telecommunications technologies to support long-distance clinical oral health care, patient and professional health related education, public health, and health administration (Marino and Ghanim, 2013). It is one of a number of growing solutions to address limited access to dental care is the utilization of telemedicine technologies in the screening for oral diseases, providing care, evaluation of care and referral (Estai et al., 2016c). There are two telemedicine modalities: real-time consultation and store-and-forward. For most dental applications, the store-and-forward method provides excellent results without excessive costs for equipment or connectivity (Daniel and Kumar, 2014). Mobile teledentistry is a subset of telemedicine that incorporates cellular phone technology and store-and-forward telemedicine into oral care services. Almost all smartphones have a built-in camera and mobile connectivity and are readily accessible at a low cost. (Estai et al., 2016d). Despite dental photography becoming an integral part of daily dental practice, it has rarely been used as means of diagnosis, consultation, or referral in routine practice. However, evidence on the use of smartphone cameras in epidemiological dental research is rare (Estai et al., 2017b).Given the need for specialist consultation in the remote parts of Saudi Arabia, there is a need for a study to examine the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in the Kingdom. Since the mixed dentition is the period of maximum dental change for a child, this study focused on the use of mobile phone teledentistry in the mixed dentition.1.2 Aim of the StudyThe aim of the study is to test the reliability of mobile phone teledentistry in diagnosis of dental caries of children in the mixed dentition.1.3 Specific Objective of the StudyThe study had the following specific objective, which is to compare the diagnosis of oral caries in the mixed dentition obtained via teledentistry to the diagnosis of these conditions obtained by physical clinical examination.The use of mobile phones and the sharing of photographic data on platforms such as WhatsAppâ„ ¢ or Instagramâ„ ¢ is a relatively new phenomenon. However, the field of teledentistry itself is not new. This literature review tracks the development of telemedicine and teledentistry. It also looks into the validity and reliability of diagnosis made using photographs. Lastly, it seeks to demonstrate the demographic and human resource challenges that highlight the need for teledentistry in Saudi Arabia.2.1 Development of TeledentistryThe development of telemedicine began in the 1960s, when the United States department of defense decided to establish a data base of interconnected networks to provide healthcare to troops stationed in remote locations (Rocca et al., 1999). The US Army conducted the first study of teledentistry at Fort Gordon, Georgia in July 1994. In this study a dental image management system was used in conjunction with an Intra-oral camera to capture color images of a patient's mouth. These images were then transmitted over a 9600 baud modem from the dental clinic in Fort McPherson, Georgia to Fort Gordon, a distance of 120 miles (Rocca et al., 1999).The initial set up for teledentistry, relied on communication via modems and wire based telephonic communication (Eraso et al., 1996). In the 1990s, the internet gained rapid popularity with the public revealing of the World Wide Web, an entity that had hitherto been a secret US army project. This led to the exploration of newer modes of transmitting data. Reviewing the existing systems of the time, Eraso et al (1996) looked at the effect of digitalizing and transmitting tomographic radiographs. Tomograms of the temporomandibular joint were digitized in three different formats using a PC-based system. The image resolution for various projections was determined at different camera-film distances. Three series of images were transmitted by telephone, and transmission times were measured. They found that while no difference in image quality was found between the initial digitized and the transmitted images; transmitted and transmitted-and-printed images were of significantly lower quality than the original radiographs or the digitized images viewed on a computer monitor (Eraso et al., 1996). In the late 1990s, the national electrical manufacturers association had developed a standard guideline for the storage and transmission of images. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for storing and transmitting medical images enabling the integration of medical imaging devices such as scanners, servers, workstations, printers, network hardware, and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) from multiple manufacturers. It has been widely adopted by hospitals, and is making inroads into smaller applications like dentists' and doctors' offices (Bauer and Brown, 2001, Folke, 2001, Chen and Chen, 2002). Chen and Chen (2002) compared DICOM images to existing videoconferencing techniques for the transmission of dental information. They found that DICOM images greatly reduced the cost of transmitting information without significantly compromising quality. The early part of the new millennium was characterized by the rapid spread of e-mail and electronic communications. The launch and spread of several free email providers such as Hotmailâ„ ¢, Gmailâ„ ¢, Yahooâ„ ¢ etc. meant that scanned images could be transmitted between persons without

Friday, August 16, 2019

Intellect vs. Instinct in “To Build a Fire” by Jack London Essay

The ignorance of the main character in To Build a Fire by Jack London is what ultimately causes his failure. He has never experienced cold like that of the Yukon Trail but is confidant, regardless, that he will reach his goal of meeting his friends at the campsite. It is the man’s determination to follow his intellect rather than his instinct that reveals his ignorance. The man begins his journey relying on flawed intellect. He illogically treks through snow, wetting his boots and feet, and must dry them before they succumb to frostbite. When the dog’s feet get wet, it instinctively licks and bites at the ice that forms between its toes. The man helps the dog, briefly removing his mitten in the numbing cold. The man does not take the same precautions, he continuously ignores his instinct. The man’s second accident occurs when he proceeds to build a fire under a snow covered tree, which begins to melt and blots the fire out. Logic is eluding him and his confidence begins to dwindle, as his journey quickly turns to failure. The old man never learns from his mistakes, and his failures compound. London writes that this second mistake was his â€Å"own fault or, rather, his mistake.† Here London is showing his beliefs as a naturalist. Had this second problem been his â€Å"fault† the author would be condemning his protagonist much more strongly; however, he calls this a mistake, a much softer term, suggesting that the man should not be held liable for his actions. Had he anticipated that lighting a fire under a frost-covered tree would cause the heavy ice to melt and fall, yet still done it, only then would he be held liable. The man’s mind begins to run wild with thoughts of insecurity and death when the second fire fails. He recollects the story of a man who kills a steer to stay warm and envisions himself killing his dog and crawling into the carcass to warm up so he can build a fire to save himself. London writes, â€Å"a certain fear of death, dull and oppressive, came to him.† Had the man been following his instinct instead of attempting to survive on his (obviously flawed) intellect throughout the story, he may have survived. The dog â€Å"experienced a vague but menacing apprehension†(921) that the man coldly did not allow himself to also experience. The man’s dog uses his instincts to survive the cold. â€Å"The dog did not know anything about thermometers. Possibly in it’s brain there was no sharp consciousness of a condition of very cold such as was in the man’s brain. But the brute had it’s instincts† writes London. The dog, who has an innate understanding of the cold, tries to burrow under the snow for warmth. He even senses the danger of remaining with the man who would kill the dog in order to bury his hands in it’s warm carcass, and escapes him by snarling and growling. When the animal leaves for the campsite he is showing that animals are not afraid of injuring their pride. The dog knows he needs fire and food. The story is a struggle of nature versus man, and throughout the story nature succeeds. The frigid arctic environment will yield nothing to the man. The tone of the story is as frigid and frightening as the setting the man has found himself in, the reader is just as unaccustomed to the cold as the old man and London’s vivid and descriptive language serve as a tool to shock the reader into realizing just how dire the man’s situation is. The cold becomes a character, fighting the man and foiling him at every turn. London emphasizes the importance of having a respect and a knowledge of the world that was surrounding the man, writing that â€Å"the man did not know the cold. Possibly all the generations of his ancestry did not know the cold, of cold one hundred and seven degrees below freezing point. But the Dog knew; all it’s ancestry knew, and it had inherited that knowledge.† (London, 924) Here we see London’s position as a naturalist taking shape in his writing. Ideally, in a successful naturalist story, the dire cold situation would have brought out the man’s most basic natural instincts. The story repeats that the man is not thinking of material things in the arctic â€Å"once in awhile the thought reiterated itself that it was very cold and he had never experienced such cold.† This is probably to emphasize that when one is experiencing such extremes of nature, the extreme is what takes over, and the mind almost shuts down to anything except the nature around them. â€Å"Empty as the man’s mind was of thoughts, he was keenly observant, and he noticed changes in the creeks, the curves and bends and timbre jams, and always he sharply noted where he placed his feet. Here, the man is learning from his  prior mistakes and letting himself be led by the cold, earlier when he was thinking of his goal and not of his feet, he found himself with freezing toes. Now, after time in the Yukon, he has found a respect for the cold. Although, this respect is not enough to drive him to the next campsite, London is unforgiving of the man’s original eubrice in taking on the cold, and does not seem to want to allow him to succeed. Eventually the man’s focus had to turn from his own goal, reaching the riches of the Yukon Trail, to survival, and fighting the frostbite that is slowly overtaking his body. However, the man refuses to consider the consequences of his actions, even when his life is threatened by the accidents: â€Å"And all the time, in his consciousness, was the knowledge that each instant his feet were freezing. This thought tended to put him in a panic, but he fought against it and kept calm† (923). Had the man allowed his instinct to take over here, he may have succeeded, but his rationality is his greatest enemy. The man also lacks foresight, â€Å"He drove the thought of his freezing feet, and nose, and cheeks, out of his mind, devoting his whole soul to the matches† (922). He should not be focusing on the matches when frostbite is obviously overtaking his body because once he does light a fire, he still has these other obstacles to tackle. He never acknowledges, and perhap s never sees, that he should have been valuing survival over wealth from the very beginning. It is unclear whether the end of the story is a message fromt he author that the old man should not have given up, and allowed himself to die, or continued to fight the cold. It is only when he is certain of his death that he acknowledges the wise words of the man at the campsite who told him not to attempt the trek. â€Å"You were right, old hoss, you were right† he says to himself, drifting into a comfortable sleep that one can only interpret as death. The message seems to be that giving up was the correct thing to do, because in allowing himself to die he is finally escaping from his pride and ignorance, and praising the words of the wise traveler. His self realization allows himself to be seen as a simile, a chicken with it’s head cut off running around in vain trying to save himself. It is when he decides that all is lost, and realizes he was wrong to set out that he is finally  comfortable, the tragedy is that his comfort is in death. The traveler’s struggle with the tremendous cold is apparent, but he never admits that his plight is his own fault. â€Å"He cursed his luck aloud† (London, 923) notice he speaks of luck, and not of a lack-of-common sense. Repeatedly warned of the dangers, he still singularly set out to locate timber and travel to the next campsite. His stubbornness is foolish. His confidence, merely arrogance, draws attention to an even more concerning internal conflict: The story is a fatal example of the human inclination to sometimes allow determination to drown out our intuitive voice.

Old Town Embark in Australia Essay

1.0 Introduction of business in Malaysia Old Town White Coffee business is chosen for implementing its subsidiaries in other country through globalization. The store itself as a restaurant selling food and beverages are focused, but not their products of instant coffee (although the product will be sold in Australia in the store too, but the store is what we should focus on). Old Town White Coffee is established and incorporated in 1999 but opened its first chain of outlets in 2005. The business is always in leading position after its success and in 2012 it is still proudly the biggest â€Å"kopitiam† restaurant in Malaysia (Old Town, 2013). â€Å"Kopitiam† can be defiend as a coffee shop which the word kopi is a Malay word that has the meaning of coffee while the word tiam is the Hokkien dialect word for a shop. The outlets of Old Town White Coffee are based on the traditional Ipoh coffee shop setting. The business expanded rapidly in the years and its outlets are available in nationwide Malaysia including all the states. Each state has lots of outlet and mainly the most of them is Penang, followed by Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. Later it expands to the stores in both Singapore and Indonesia. In 2009, there are around 1348 over retail outlets available in Malaysia, 550 in Singapore and 2100 in Hong Kong (Old Town, 2013). Old Town White Coffee operates mainly in selling coffee such as Nayang Kopi O and Nayang Kopi C and most importantly its signature drinks Ipoh White Coffee, but the business is also available in other beverages that are common in Malaysia such as Old Town White Milk Tea, Old Town Cham and Old Town Enriched Chocolate. Other than the beverages, there are some classic dishes like Old Town Nasi Lemak Special, Mee Java, Old Town Mee Hoon, Dry Curry Mee, Old Town Assam Laksa, Old Town Lum Mee, Old Town Ipoh Chicken Hor Fun and etc (Old Town, 2013). There are some local favorites and sweet delight such as Kaya and Butter toast and Old Town Signature Ice Cream. These food and beverages are all local food and beverages that are popular among the Malaysians. Old Town White Coffee can be said as successful as it grow from a small business to a large corporation nowadays, and it is well known in Malaysia. Since the market in Malaysia is matured it should have try to expand its business in the other countries and it is proved in both Singapore and Indonesia by its revenue and time they survived. Old Town White Coffee is well prepared to access to the world through globalization and try to dominate the market available to them. 2.0 PESTLE factors of country selected Pestle factors is a framework of macro-environmental factors which to be used in strategic management environmental scanning component. Political factor, economic factor, social factor, technological factor, environmental factor is included in Pestle (Byars, 1991). 2.1 Political factor The factor includes understanding about the political system, and some key figures that are relevant to government indicators and the business in the country (Jan, 2002). Trading policies in Australia with its neighbor countries is good and in favorable condition. Pressure groups in Australia will let new business to consider and practice Corporate Social Responsibility and Ethics. Australia political environment can be consider as sound as it does not involve in any form of war inside or outside the country. Besides, the government of Australia is work in the policy that encourage international businesses to invest in. Political environment in Australia is sound, as there are voting elections held in every 3 years (Australia profile, 2007). However when new government is formed there might be revising the regulations of business. 2.2 Economic factor The factor provides understanding about the economic story of the country that gives significant macro-economic issues a balanced assessment (Jan, 2002). In Australia the economy is facing a recession, with 2-3% inflation rate and approximately 6% unemployment rate. Sales tax, progressive income tax, corporate tax rate and etc are implied on Australia. It is very competitive for the corporate tax rate in Australia comparing to some major economies. The climate in Australia is pleasant and favorable for businesses. Other than that, Australia trade focused more in Asia and some pacific countries. The interest rate in Australia is approximately 3% and is favorable for investors as the business can be finance in a lower cost. 2.3 Social factor The factor deals with customer demographics involves income distribution, healthcare, educational scenario, rural-urban segmentation and centers of affluence (Jan, 2002). The media in Australia has a great impact on the people’s life.99% of the population in Australia is educated. Quality goods are more favorable among them as they are all highly educated. Religious are pretty diversified in Australia and there is a small percentage of them do not take beef, and small percentage of them is vegetarians. Other than that there is also Muslim that does not take pork. Furthermore, the Australian has high buying power which is good for trading over there (Australia profile, 2007). 2.4 Technological factor The factor enables understanding of strategic information on technological laws and policies, patents, technology and telecom, technological gaps and opportunity sectors in the country (Jan, 2002). There is a number exceeding $30 million of current value of intellectual property in Australia (Australia profile, 2007). The transportation infrastructure of Australia is well formed in the country and the business can serve their customer in a best way through transportation. 2.5 Legal factor The factor enables study of legal structure, laws to start a business, corporate laws and the tax regime (Jan, 2002). Australia Law system is not binding but influential to each other. Law is passed by the Parliaments and both common law and equity, and constitutional and statute law are used. There are Australia copyright law and Australian contract law which governed the businesses trading in Australia. 2.6 Environmental factor The factor is considering the country’s performance on environmental policies and indicators (Jan, 2002). Australia is a country that supports environmental protection. When the business is operated in Australia, there should be assumption of no negative impact on the environmental issues and Australia campaign regarding environmental issues should be supported. 3.0 Benefits, Cost and Risks in the business endeavor To invest a business, there are always benefits the business can earn and there are also costs whether high or low the business has to pay off. When there is an investment of business there are always risks associated with. The benefits of implementing Old Town stores in Australia involves providing food and beverages that are local, Malaysian style to those students who are studying in Australia, or some Malaysian that has immigrated to Australia. Instead of Malaysian, Singaporean, Indonesian and Bruneian are also widely available in Australia. They always seek Chinese foods that are unavailable in Australia but in the only street, Chinatown. Opening stores in Australia will definitely have a pleased welcome of them. Other than that, through this the culture in Malaysia, the local delights of Malaysia can be spread to Australia through this method. As there are the needs from those students and immigrated Malaysian, Singaporean, Indonesian and Bruneian, opening Old Town stores in Australia will make profit. However, the costs of opening stores of Old Town White Coffee in Australia is not cheap as there are a need of large capacity for the resources including raw materials, labor forces, and etc. Moreover, the raw materials and labor forces in Australia is not cheap therefore the costs is highly expensive. Other than that, Old Town White Coffee has exported its 3 in one instant Old Town White Coffee worldwide therefore in this time they have to implement their store which is the restaurant selling food. This made them cannot have it to be done exporting but the other form of method of entry. This made the costs higher. When there are higher costs there are always associated with higher risks. However, a higher risk always gives a higher return. Investments are like gambling all the time. There should have appropriate strategic management assessing all the risks and see whether it is worth it to invest. It is definitely worth it to invest when there are already customer sources. However, the people are distributed in various places, to cut cost there have to be less opening of stores and this will make the people cannot access to the stores and therefore less customers. Other than that, the Australian might not like Old Town food and beverages due to different tastes. 4.0 Proposed Method of Entry The proposed mode of entry is the types of entry modes that to enter into foreign market which is spilt up to two major types of entry modes which are equity and non-equity mode. Equity modes involve joint venture and wholly owned subsidiaries while non-equity modes involve export and contractual agreements. The entry methods are not similar and differ in degree of risk they present, the resource commitment and control they required and the investment return they promise (Agarwal & Ramaswami, 1992). The decision on what method chosen to enter a foreign will have a significant impact on the results therefore it should be careful when doing the selections. As it is a restaurant and cafà © based store it is impossible for Old Town White Coffee to enter the Australia market through exporting. There should be a try of contractual agreements like licensing and franchising, joint venture or direct investment which wholly owned the subsidiaries. In our view, as the costs are very high to invest in Australia and high risks associated in it, contractual agreement should be chosen as this method has provided the least of risks and costs other than exporting among all the choices of methods of entry. The advantages of licensing and franchising include minimizes risk and investment, having the ability of circumventing trade barriers, speed of entry, and high return on investment. Furthermore, there are low political risks, low costs and simultaneous expansion is allowed across the world. In an opposite way, the disadvantages of licensing and franchising involve lack of control of assets use, and the licenses or franchises might become a competitor later, the knowledge of the business is spillovers and the time period of license and franchise is limited. There might be wrong candidate of franchiser or licensor that ruin the business name or reputation (Agarwal & Ramaswami, 1992). Overall, there should have a use in licensing and franchising when there are import and investment barriers that are high but it is not appropriate in Australia as it is low in Australia. Other than that, there is no possible protection of legal in Australia environment which made licensing and franchising further not appropriate. However, there are large cultural distance and low potential of sales in Australia that estimated therefore using licensing and franchising is appropriated. Other than that is has to be assured that the licensee and franchisee has less ability to turn up to be a competitor. Old Town White Coffee should try joint ventures and direct investment but for cost and risk minimizing, they will have to choose licensing and franchising.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Prom Nights from Hell Chapter Four

â€Å"Poor Sheeb, still locked in half-human form,† Jezebel teased. â€Å"I remember how good everything smells all the time. Ugh. And the temperature! Do the humans have to freeze everything with their wretched air-conditioning?† Sheba's face was smooth now, controlled. â€Å"I get by. There's plenty of misery to go around.† â€Å"That's the spirit! Just another few centuries, and you'll be in the big-time with me.† Sheba allowed a smirk to curl her lips. â€Å"Or maybe not quite so long.† One black eyebrow arched high against Jezebel's white forehead, raising almost to an ebony horn. â€Å"Is that so? Got something particularly evil up your sleeve, little sister?† Sheba didn't answer, tensing again as Jezebel sent her own thoughts snaking invisibly through the crowd inside the ballroom. Sheba locked her jaw, ready to strike back if Jezebel tried to undo any of her schemes. But Jezebel just looked, touching nothing. â€Å"Hmm,† Jezebel hummed to herself. â€Å"Hmm.† Sheba's fists clenched hard as Jezebel's search touched Cooper Silverdale, but again, Jezebel merely observed. â€Å"Well, well,† the horned demoness murmured. â€Å"Wow. Sheeb, I've got to say it, I'm impressed. You got a gun in. And a motivated hand-full of alcohol to weaken his free will!† The older demoness smiled with something that looked strangely like sincerity. â€Å"This is really evil. I mean, sure, a middle demon working homicide or mayhem or maybe riots could set something like this up at a prom, but a human-form child on misery detail? What are you, two, three hundred?† â€Å"Just one-eighty-six at my last spawn day,† Sheba answered brusquely, still wary. Jezebel whistled a tongue of flame through her lips. â€Å"Very impressed. And I can see that you aren't neglecting your assignment, either. That's one miserable crowd in there.† Jezebel laughed. â€Å"You've ended nearly every promising relationship, broken a few dozen lifelong friendships, made new enemies†¦ three, four, five fights brewing,† Jezebel counted, her mind with the humans. â€Å"You've even got the DJ listening to you! Such attention to detail. Ha-ha! I can count on one hand the humans who aren't completely wretched.† Sheba smiled grimly. â€Å"I'll get to them.† â€Å"Ghastly, Sheeb. Seriously nasty. You do our name proud. If every prom had a demoness like you involved, we'd own this world.† â€Å"Aw, Jez, you're making me blush,† Sheba said with heavy sarcasm. Jezebel laughed. â€Å"Of course, you've got a little help.† Jezebel's thoughts twisted in a circle around Celeste, who had just twisted herself around a new boy. Jilted girls cried, while the boys Celeste carelessly tossed aside flexed their fists and glowered wrathfully at their competition; burning with lust, each was determined that Celeste was finishing the night with him. Celeste was doing half the work tonight. â€Å"I use the tools available to me,† Sheba said. â€Å"What an ironic name! What an evil mind! Is she fully human?† â€Å"I passed her in the hall, just to check,† Sheba admitted. â€Å"Pure, clean human scent. Revolting.† â€Å"Huh. I would have sworn she had some demon in her ancestry. Good find. But, Sheba, asking a date? Pretty amateur, involving yourself physically that way.† Sheba's chin jabbed upward defensively, but she did not answer. Jezebel was right; it was crude and time-consuming to use one's human form rather than one's demon mind. However, it was the results that counted. Sheba's timely interference had kept Logan from discovering his true love. â€Å"Well, it in no way diminishes your accomplishments here tonight.† Jezebel's tone was conciliatory. â€Å"You pull this one off, and they'll put you in the baby demons' textbooks.† â€Å"Thanks,† Sheba snapped. Did Jezebel really think she could flatter Sheba into letting her guard down? Jezebel smiled, and her mists curled up on the edges, mirroring the expression. â€Å"A tip, Sheba. Keep them confused in there. If you can get Cooper to pull the trigger, then you might make some of these wannabe gangsters think they're under fire.† Jezebel shook her head in wonder. â€Å"You've got so much potential mayhem here. Of course, they'll bring in a riot demon if it really gets hot†¦ but you'd still get some of the credit for stirring it up.† Sheba grimaced, and glimmers of red flashed at her ears. What was Jezebel doing? Where was the trick? Her mind ran over and over the humans she was assigned to torment, but she could find no trace of Jezebel's distinct brimstone flavor in the ballroom. There was nothing but the misery Sheba had caused herself, and the few little pockets of repellent happiness that Sheba would attend to shortly. â€Å"You're certainly helpful tonight,† Sheba said, being deliberately insulting. Jezebel sighed, and there was something about the way her mists rolled back in on themselves that made her look†¦ embarrassed. For the first time, Sheba felt a hint of doubt about her assumptions. But Jezebel's motives had to be malicious. That's the only kind of motives demons had. With a rueful expression on her face, Jezebel asked quietly, â€Å"Is it so impossible to believe that I might want you to get promoted?† â€Å"Yes.† Jezebel sighed again. And again, the way her mists writhed in chagrin made Sheba uncertain. â€Å"Why?† Sheba demanded. â€Å"What do you get out of this?† â€Å"I know it's all wrong-or rather right-for me to be giving you advice you can work with. Not very evil of me.† Sheba nodded cautiously. â€Å"It's in our nature to trip up everyone, demons, humans-even angels if we get the chance. We're evil. Naturally we're going to backstab, whether it hurts our side or not. We wouldn't be demons if we didn't let envy, greed, lust, and wrath rule us.† Jezebel chuckled. â€Å"I remember-how many years ago was it? – Lilith almost got you booted back a few grades, didn't she?† Red fire smoldered in Sheba's eyes at the memory. â€Å"Almost.† â€Å"You handled it better than most. You're one of the very worst working misery right now, you know.† Flattery again? Sheba stiffened. Jezebel twisted her mists up with a finger, and then circled that finger so that the mists drew a smoky orb against the night sky. â€Å"There's a bigger picture, though, Sheba. Demons like Lilith can't see past the evil at hand. But there's a whole world out there, full of humans making millions of decisions every minute of the day and night. We can only be there to sway a fraction of those decisions. And sometimes, well, from where I'm standing, it feels like the angels are getting ahead†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"But, Jezebel!† Sheba gasped, shock breaking through her suspicion. â€Å"We're winning. Just watch the news-it's obvious we're winning.† â€Å"I know, I know. But even with all the wars and destruction†¦ it's odd, Sheba. There's still an awful lot of happiness out there. For every mugging I turn into a homicide, across town some angel has a bystander jumping another mugger to save the day. Or convincing the mugger to give up his wicked ways! Ugh. We're losing ground.† â€Å"But the angels are weak, Jezebel. Everyone knows that. They're so full of love that they can't concentrate. Half the time the stupid birdbrains fall in love with a human and trade their wings for a human body. Though why even an idiot angel would want this!† Sheba scowled down the length of her human form. So limiting. â€Å"I've never really understood the point of having to wear these around for half a millennium. I guess it's probably just to torture us, isn't it? The dark lords must enjoy watching us squirm.† â€Å"It's more than that. It's to make you really hate them. The humans, I mean.† Sheba stared at her. â€Å"Why would I need a reason? Hate is what I do.† â€Å"It happens, you know,† Jezebel said slowly. â€Å"The angels aren't the only ones to give it all up. There are demons who've traded their horns for a human.† â€Å"No!† Sheba's eyes widened, then narrowed in disbelief. â€Å"You're exaggerating. Now and then a demon shacks up with a human, but it's just to torment them. Just a bit of malicious fun.† Jezebel winced, swishing her mists into figure eights, but she didn't argue back. That's what made Sheba realize she was serious. Sheba swallowed hard. â€Å"Wow.† She couldn't imagine that. Taking all this delicious evil and throwing it away. Giving up a hard-earned pair of horns-horns that Sheba would destroy anything to have right now-and getting stuck with a weak, fully mortal body in return. Sheba eyed Jezebel's glistening onyx horns and frowned. â€Å"I don't understand how anyone could do that.† â€Å"Remember what you said about the angels? Getting distracted by love?† Jezebel asked. â€Å"Well, hate can be a distraction, too. Look at Lilith and her spiteful good deeds. Maybe it starts out with sticking it to the lesser demons, but who knows where it will lead? Virtue corrupts.† â€Å"I can't believe a few tricks against another demon could make you as stupid as a birdbrain,† Sheba mumbled under her breath. â€Å"Sheba, don't underestimate the angels,† Jezebel chastised. â€Å"You don't mess with them-you hear? Even a strong middle demon like me knows better than to lock horns with the feather-backs. They steer clear of us, and we steer clear of them. Let the Demon Lords deal with the angels.† â€Å"I know that, Jezebel. I wasn't spawned this decade.† â€Å"Sorry. I'm being helpful again.† She shuddered. â€Å"I just get so frustrated sometimes! Goodness and light on every side!† Sheba shook her head. â€Å"I don't see that. Misery is everywhere.† â€Å"Happiness is, too, sis. It's all over the place,† Jezebel said sadly. It was silent for a long moment as Jezebel's words lingered in the air. The sticky breeze washed across Sheba's skin. Miami was no hell, but it was comfortable at least. â€Å"Not at my prom!† Sheba retorted with sudden fierceness. Jezebel smiled widely-her teeth were black as the night sky. â€Å"That's just it-that's why I'm being so un-damnedly helpful. Because we need demonesses like you out there. We need the worst we can get on the front lines. Let the Liliths of the underworld mess around with petty tricks. Get me the Shebas on my side. Get me a thousand Shebas. We'll win this fight once and for all.† Sheba considered that for a moment, weighing the fierce purpose in Jezebel's voice. â€Å"That's evil in such a strange way. It almost sounds like good.† â€Å"Twisted, I know.† They laughed together for the first time. â€Å"Well, get back in there and destroy that prom.† â€Å"I'm on it. Go to hell, Jezebel.† Prom Nights from Hell Chapter Four Sibby Cumean started talking as soon as they got out of the airport. â€Å"How long have you been driving people around?† she asked Miranda. A year. â€Å"Did you grow up here?† â€Å"No.† â€Å"Do you have any brothers?† â€Å"No.† â€Å"Any sisters?† â€Å"N-no.† â€Å"Do you like driving?† â€Å"Yes.† â€Å"Do you have to wear that boring black suit?† â€Å"Yes.† â€Å"How old are you?† â€Å"Twenty.† â€Å"Um, not.† â€Å"Fine. Eighteen.† â€Å"Have you ever had sex?† Miranda cleared her throat. â€Å"I don't think that question is appropriate.† She heard herself sound like Dr. Trope, the assistant head of school, with the voice he used to tell her he wasn't listening to another excuse about why she was late getting back to campus, rules were made for a reason and that reason wasn't so she could flout them for her amusement; and speaking of late, did she plan at some point to decide what she was going to do next year or just irresponsibly forfeit her place at the several top-tier colleges she'd been accepted to, making the school look bad and herself look worse; and really he didn't know what had gotten into her recently, where was the Miranda Kiss who was going to be a doctor and save the world, who was a credit to the school and herself, rather than the one who was on her way to being expelled-is that what you really want, young lady? A voice she knew well since she seemed to have been hearing it at least once a week since early November. â€Å"You're a virgin,† Sibby announced, like she was confirming a sad fact she'd long suspected. â€Å"That's not-â€Å" â€Å"Do you at least have a boyfriend?† â€Å"Not at this-â€Å" â€Å"A girlfriend?† â€Å"No.† â€Å"Do you have any friends? You're not really very good at conversation.† Miranda was beginning to understand why the girl's relatives hadn't come to the airport for her. â€Å"I have lots of friends.† â€Å"Sure. I believe you. What do you do for fun?† â€Å"Answer questions.† â€Å"Please never try to be funny again.† Sibby leaned forward. â€Å"Have you ever thought of wearing some black eyeliner? It would be an improvement.† B polite! â€Å"Thanks.† â€Å"Can you pull up?† â€Å"Um, we're at a stoplight.† â€Å"Just go forward a tiny-perfect.† Looking in the side mirror, Miranda saw that Sibby had rolled down her window and was leaning out, saying now to the guys in the jeep next to them, â€Å"Where are you boys going?† The guys answered, â€Å"A little moonlight surfing. Want to come, goddess?† â€Å"I'm not a goddess. Do you think I look like one?† â€Å"I can't tell. Maybe if you take off your shirt.† â€Å"Maybe if you give me a kiss.† Miranda hit the button to roll up the window. â€Å"What are you doing?† Sibby demanded. â€Å"You could have broken my hand.† â€Å"Put your seat belt on, please.† â€Å"Put your seat belt on, please,† Sibby mimicked, slumping back into the seat. â€Å"Oh my gods, I was just trying to be sociable.† â€Å"Until we get to your destination, no more socializing.† â€Å"Have you listened to yourself recently? You sound like you're eighty, not eighteen.† She scowled at Miranda in the mirror. â€Å"I thought you were a driver, not a jailer.† â€Å"It's my job to make sure you get where you're going in a safe and timely manner. That's printed on the card you'll find in your seat pocket, by the way.† â€Å"How is kissing some boys going to make me unsafe?† â€Å"A million different ways. What if they have an invisible mouth fungus? Or DeathLip.† â€Å"There's no such thing as DeathLip.† â€Å"Are you sure?† â€Å"You're just jealous because I know how to have fun and you don't. Virgin.† Miranda rolled her eyes but kept quiet, listening to cell phone conversations from the cars behind them, a woman telling someone that the gardener was on his way, a guy saying in a mystical voice, â€Å"I see a mysterious stranger coming for you, I can't quite tell if it's a man or a woman.† Another man talking to someone about how he wanted to take that bitch out of the will and it didn't matter if she was his mother's favorite dog- She was interrupted suddenly by Sibby shouting, â€Å"Inn-Out Burger! We have to stop.† B accommodating! Miranda agreed to let Sibby order her own at the drive-through, then regretted it when she heard the girl saying to the guy taking the order, â€Å"Do I get a discount if I let you kiss me?† â€Å"Okay, seriously, were you raised on Crazycake? Why do you want to kiss all these guys you don't even know?† Miranda asked. â€Å"There aren't that many boys where I come from. And what does knowing them have to do with it? Kissing is great. I kissed four boys on the airplane. I'm hoping to make it twenty-five before the end of the day.† She added the two working the drive-through lane when she got her burger. â€Å"Are all hamburgers that delicious?† she asked when they were on the road again. Miranda glanced at her in the rearview mirror. â€Å"You've never had a burger before? Where do you live?† â€Å"The mountains,† Sibby answered quickly, and Miranda picked up a slight rise in her heart rate, suggesting that she was lying and not used to it. Which seemed hugely unlikely-the not-used-to-it part-for someone who had a case of acute Boy Crazy like this girl. Her parents couldn't possibly let her run around- Oh So Very Much Not Your Problem, Miranda reminded herself. B discreet. Sibby tried to solicit kisses from four other guys as they drove. They were a mile from the drop-off point and Miranda was thinking that the ride could not be over soon enough when Sibby shrieked, â€Å"Oh my gods, a doughnut store! I've always wanted to try doughnuts, too. Can we stop? Pleasepleasepleasepleaseplease?† They were already almost an hour late but Miranda couldn't deny anyone a doughnut. Even someone who said, â€Å"Oh my gods.† But pulling in, she saw a group of guys sitting at a table inside and decided that it would be dangerous to let Sibby near them if she wanted to get out of there in under forty minutes. â€Å"I'll go in and get them, you stay here.† Sibby had seen the guys, too. â€Å"No way, I'm coming in.† â€Å"Either your butt stays in the car, Kissing Bandit, or the doughnuts stay in the store.† â€Å"I don't think that's a nice way to talk to customers.† â€Å"Feel free to use my phone to file a complaint while I'm inside. Do we have a deal?† â€Å"Fine. But will you at least roll down the window?† Miranda hesitated. Sibby said, â€Å"Look, Grandma, I promise I'll keep my butt in the car, I just don't want to suffocate. Gods.† When Miranda came out, Sibby had wedged herself in the window with her body and legs outside the car and her rear hanging back into it, and was deeply involved in kissing a blond guy. â€Å"Excuse me,† Miranda said, tapping the guy on the shoulder. He turned around kind of hazy, looked her up and down. â€Å"Hello, dream girl. You want a kiss, too? I could do something really special with lips like yours. You wouldn't even have to pay me a dollar.† â€Å"Thanks, but no.† Looking at Sibby now. â€Å"I thought we'd agreed that-â€Å" † – my butt would stay in the car. Where, if you bothered to look, you would see it is.† Miranda turned away so Sibby wouldn't see her crack up. She handed Sibby the doughnuts and slid into the driver's seat. Once Sibby had wiggled back through the window, Miranda caught her eye in the rearview. â€Å"You were paying guys to kiss you?† â€Å"So what?† Sibby glared. â€Å"Not all of us can get kissed for free.† More glaring, then, â€Å"You barely have boobs. My boobs are bigger than yours. It makes no sense.† Sibby got quiet, not even eating her doughnut. From time to time she'd sigh dramatically. Miranda started feeling a little sorry. Maybe she had been acting like a grandma. She looked at How to Get-And Kiss-Your Guy on the seat next to her. Maybe you're jealous she's four years younger than you but has already kissed more guys in one day than you'll probably date in your whole life even if you get a boob job and live to be two trillion. Shut up, U-Suck channel. She should be nice, make conversation. â€Å"How many kisses is it total now?† Sibby kept her eyes on her lap. â€Å"Ten.† Looking up to add, â€Å"But I only paid six of them. And one of them I only gave a quarter.† â€Å"Nice work.† Miranda saw Sibby look up suspiciously, like she thought she was being made fun of, decide she wasn't, and start picking at her doughnut. After a while she said, â€Å"Can I ask you a question?† â€Å"You're asking permission now?† â€Å"For real, just please stop trying to be funny. It's painful.† â€Å"Thanks for the hot tip. Did you have a question or-â€Å" â€Å"Why didn't you want to kiss that boy back there? The one who wanted to kiss you?† â€Å"I guess he's not my type.† â€Å"What's your type?† Miranda thought of Deputy Reynolds-blue eyes and cleft jaw and shaggy blond hair, getting up every morning to go surfing. The kind of guy who always wore sunglasses or looked at you with his eyes half closed and was too cool for smiling. Then pictured Will with his dark, maple-syrup-color skin, short curly hair, huge boyish smile, and abs that rippled when he stood talking, shirtless, with the other players after lacrosse practice, body glimmering in the sun, his laugh ringing out and making her feel like she felt when she saw butter melting on perfectly cooked Belgian waffles. Not that she routinely jumped up onto the roof of the marine biology lab when no one was looking to watch this. (Weekly.) â€Å"I don't know, it's more a feeling than a type,† Miranda said finally. â€Å"How many boys have you kissed? A hundred?† â€Å"Uh, no.† â€Å"Two hundred?† Miranda felt herself blushing and hoped Sibby couldn't see. â€Å"Keep guessing.† They pulled up to the address she'd been given, an hour and fifteen minutes later than they should have, the first time she'd ever dropped a client off late. When Miranda opened the car door for her, Sibby asked, â€Å"Is kissing a boy who's your type really different than kissing just any boy?† â€Å"It's complicated.† Miranda was surprised at how relieved she was that she wouldn't have to go into it more, admit to this girl that, actually, she had no idea. The place looked more like a government safe house for witnesses than a home, she thought, walking Sibby to the door. It was like the dictionary definition of nondescript, sandwiched between a house with Snow White and the Seven Dwarves enacting the Nativity on the front lawn on one side, and one with a pink-and-orange swing set on the other. The only thing you noticed about this house was that there were thick curtains hanging in the front windows so you couldn't see in, and a six-foot-tall solid wood fence blocking off the backyard so you couldn't get in. The street was filled with noises-Miranda heard BBQs sizzling, conversations, someone watching Beauty and the Beast in Spanish-but this house was silent, as though it had been soundproofed. She registered a low humming coming from the side, like an air conditioner but not quite. Glancing up, she saw that none of the power lines connected to this house. None of the phone lines, either. A generator. Whoever lived here was living off the grid. All in all, the whole place was really cozy, if cozy meant creepy and cultish. And the woman who opened the front door? Exactly what you'd expect of someone creepy and cultish, Miranda thought. She had graying hair pulled back in a loose bun and was wearing a long skirt and kind of shapeless sweater. She could have been anywhere from thirty to sixty years old, it was impossible to tell because she was wearing a pair of huge bifocals with unflattering square frames that magnified her eyes and covered half her face. She looked completely harmless, like a schoolteacher who'd dedicated her life to caring for an aging relative and whose one indulgence was a secret crush on Mr. Rochester from Jane Eyre. Or almost like that. Like that was the look she'd been going for. But there was something wrong, some tiny thing that did not quite match, one tiny detail that wasn't right. So. Not. Your. Business. Miranda said good-bye, took her $1.00 tip-â€Å"Because you were really quite late, dear†-and drove away. She was half a block away when she slammed on the brakes and sprinted back to the house. Prom Nights from Hell Chapter Four Sibby Cumean started talking as soon as they got out of the airport. â€Å"How long have you been driving people around?† she asked Miranda. A year. â€Å"Did you grow up here?† â€Å"No.† â€Å"Do you have any brothers?† â€Å"No.† â€Å"Any sisters?† â€Å"N-no.† â€Å"Do you like driving?† â€Å"Yes.† â€Å"Do you have to wear that boring black suit?† â€Å"Yes.† â€Å"How old are you?† â€Å"Twenty.† â€Å"Um, not.† â€Å"Fine. Eighteen.† â€Å"Have you ever had sex?† Miranda cleared her throat. â€Å"I don't think that question is appropriate.† She heard herself sound like Dr. Trope, the assistant head of school, with the voice he used to tell her he wasn't listening to another excuse about why she was late getting back to campus, rules were made for a reason and that reason wasn't so she could flout them for her amusement; and speaking of late, did she plan at some point to decide what she was going to do next year or just irresponsibly forfeit her place at the several top-tier colleges she'd been accepted to, making the school look bad and herself look worse; and really he didn't know what had gotten into her recently, where was the Miranda Kiss who was going to be a doctor and save the world, who was a credit to the school and herself, rather than the one who was on her way to being expelled-is that what you really want, young lady? A voice she knew well since she seemed to have been hearing it at least once a week since early November. â€Å"You're a virgin,† Sibby announced, like she was confirming a sad fact she'd long suspected. â€Å"That's not-â€Å" â€Å"Do you at least have a boyfriend?† â€Å"Not at this-â€Å" â€Å"A girlfriend?† â€Å"No.† â€Å"Do you have any friends? You're not really very good at conversation.† Miranda was beginning to understand why the girl's relatives hadn't come to the airport for her. â€Å"I have lots of friends.† â€Å"Sure. I believe you. What do you do for fun?† â€Å"Answer questions.† â€Å"Please never try to be funny again.† Sibby leaned forward. â€Å"Have you ever thought of wearing some black eyeliner? It would be an improvement.† B polite! â€Å"Thanks.† â€Å"Can you pull up?† â€Å"Um, we're at a stoplight.† â€Å"Just go forward a tiny-perfect.† Looking in the side mirror, Miranda saw that Sibby had rolled down her window and was leaning out, saying now to the guys in the jeep next to them, â€Å"Where are you boys going?† The guys answered, â€Å"A little moonlight surfing. Want to come, goddess?† â€Å"I'm not a goddess. Do you think I look like one?† â€Å"I can't tell. Maybe if you take off your shirt.† â€Å"Maybe if you give me a kiss.† Miranda hit the button to roll up the window. â€Å"What are you doing?† Sibby demanded. â€Å"You could have broken my hand.† â€Å"Put your seat belt on, please.† â€Å"Put your seat belt on, please,† Sibby mimicked, slumping back into the seat. â€Å"Oh my gods, I was just trying to be sociable.† â€Å"Until we get to your destination, no more socializing.† â€Å"Have you listened to yourself recently? You sound like you're eighty, not eighteen.† She scowled at Miranda in the mirror. â€Å"I thought you were a driver, not a jailer.† â€Å"It's my job to make sure you get where you're going in a safe and timely manner. That's printed on the card you'll find in your seat pocket, by the way.† â€Å"How is kissing some boys going to make me unsafe?† â€Å"A million different ways. What if they have an invisible mouth fungus? Or DeathLip.† â€Å"There's no such thing as DeathLip.† â€Å"Are you sure?† â€Å"You're just jealous because I know how to have fun and you don't. Virgin.† Miranda rolled her eyes but kept quiet, listening to cell phone conversations from the cars behind them, a woman telling someone that the gardener was on his way, a guy saying in a mystical voice, â€Å"I see a mysterious stranger coming for you, I can't quite tell if it's a man or a woman.† Another man talking to someone about how he wanted to take that bitch out of the will and it didn't matter if she was his mother's favorite dog- She was interrupted suddenly by Sibby shouting, â€Å"Inn-Out Burger! We have to stop.† B accommodating! Miranda agreed to let Sibby order her own at the drive-through, then regretted it when she heard the girl saying to the guy taking the order, â€Å"Do I get a discount if I let you kiss me?† â€Å"Okay, seriously, were you raised on Crazycake? Why do you want to kiss all these guys you don't even know?† Miranda asked. â€Å"There aren't that many boys where I come from. And what does knowing them have to do with it? Kissing is great. I kissed four boys on the airplane. I'm hoping to make it twenty-five before the end of the day.† She added the two working the drive-through lane when she got her burger. â€Å"Are all hamburgers that delicious?† she asked when they were on the road again. Miranda glanced at her in the rearview mirror. â€Å"You've never had a burger before? Where do you live?† â€Å"The mountains,† Sibby answered quickly, and Miranda picked up a slight rise in her heart rate, suggesting that she was lying and not used to it. Which seemed hugely unlikely-the not-used-to-it part-for someone who had a case of acute Boy Crazy like this girl. Her parents couldn't possibly let her run around- Oh So Very Much Not Your Problem, Miranda reminded herself. B discreet. Sibby tried to solicit kisses from four other guys as they drove. They were a mile from the drop-off point and Miranda was thinking that the ride could not be over soon enough when Sibby shrieked, â€Å"Oh my gods, a doughnut store! I've always wanted to try doughnuts, too. Can we stop? Pleasepleasepleasepleaseplease?† They were already almost an hour late but Miranda couldn't deny anyone a doughnut. Even someone who said, â€Å"Oh my gods.† But pulling in, she saw a group of guys sitting at a table inside and decided that it would be dangerous to let Sibby near them if she wanted to get out of there in under forty minutes. â€Å"I'll go in and get them, you stay here.† Sibby had seen the guys, too. â€Å"No way, I'm coming in.† â€Å"Either your butt stays in the car, Kissing Bandit, or the doughnuts stay in the store.† â€Å"I don't think that's a nice way to talk to customers.† â€Å"Feel free to use my phone to file a complaint while I'm inside. Do we have a deal?† â€Å"Fine. But will you at least roll down the window?† Miranda hesitated. Sibby said, â€Å"Look, Grandma, I promise I'll keep my butt in the car, I just don't want to suffocate. Gods.† When Miranda came out, Sibby had wedged herself in the window with her body and legs outside the car and her rear hanging back into it, and was deeply involved in kissing a blond guy. â€Å"Excuse me,† Miranda said, tapping the guy on the shoulder. He turned around kind of hazy, looked her up and down. â€Å"Hello, dream girl. You want a kiss, too? I could do something really special with lips like yours. You wouldn't even have to pay me a dollar.† â€Å"Thanks, but no.† Looking at Sibby now. â€Å"I thought we'd agreed that-â€Å" † – my butt would stay in the car. Where, if you bothered to look, you would see it is.† Miranda turned away so Sibby wouldn't see her crack up. She handed Sibby the doughnuts and slid into the driver's seat. Once Sibby had wiggled back through the window, Miranda caught her eye in the rearview. â€Å"You were paying guys to kiss you?† â€Å"So what?† Sibby glared. â€Å"Not all of us can get kissed for free.† More glaring, then, â€Å"You barely have boobs. My boobs are bigger than yours. It makes no sense.† Sibby got quiet, not even eating her doughnut. From time to time she'd sigh dramatically. Miranda started feeling a little sorry. Maybe she had been acting like a grandma. She looked at How to Get-And Kiss-Your Guy on the seat next to her. Maybe you're jealous she's four years younger than you but has already kissed more guys in one day than you'll probably date in your whole life even if you get a boob job and live to be two trillion. Shut up, U-Suck channel. She should be nice, make conversation. â€Å"How many kisses is it total now?† Sibby kept her eyes on her lap. â€Å"Ten.† Looking up to add, â€Å"But I only paid six of them. And one of them I only gave a quarter.† â€Å"Nice work.† Miranda saw Sibby look up suspiciously, like she thought she was being made fun of, decide she wasn't, and start picking at her doughnut. After a while she said, â€Å"Can I ask you a question?† â€Å"You're asking permission now?† â€Å"For real, just please stop trying to be funny. It's painful.† â€Å"Thanks for the hot tip. Did you have a question or-â€Å" â€Å"Why didn't you want to kiss that boy back there? The one who wanted to kiss you?† â€Å"I guess he's not my type.† â€Å"What's your type?† Miranda thought of Deputy Reynolds-blue eyes and cleft jaw and shaggy blond hair, getting up every morning to go surfing. The kind of guy who always wore sunglasses or looked at you with his eyes half closed and was too cool for smiling. Then pictured Will with his dark, maple-syrup-color skin, short curly hair, huge boyish smile, and abs that rippled when he stood talking, shirtless, with the other players after lacrosse practice, body glimmering in the sun, his laugh ringing out and making her feel like she felt when she saw butter melting on perfectly cooked Belgian waffles. Not that she routinely jumped up onto the roof of the marine biology lab when no one was looking to watch this. (Weekly.) â€Å"I don't know, it's more a feeling than a type,† Miranda said finally. â€Å"How many boys have you kissed? A hundred?† â€Å"Uh, no.† â€Å"Two hundred?† Miranda felt herself blushing and hoped Sibby couldn't see. â€Å"Keep guessing.† They pulled up to the address she'd been given, an hour and fifteen minutes later than they should have, the first time she'd ever dropped a client off late. When Miranda opened the car door for her, Sibby asked, â€Å"Is kissing a boy who's your type really different than kissing just any boy?† â€Å"It's complicated.† Miranda was surprised at how relieved she was that she wouldn't have to go into it more, admit to this girl that, actually, she had no idea. The place looked more like a government safe house for witnesses than a home, she thought, walking Sibby to the door. It was like the dictionary definition of nondescript, sandwiched between a house with Snow White and the Seven Dwarves enacting the Nativity on the front lawn on one side, and one with a pink-and-orange swing set on the other. The only thing you noticed about this house was that there were thick curtains hanging in the front windows so you couldn't see in, and a six-foot-tall solid wood fence blocking off the backyard so you couldn't get in. The street was filled with noises-Miranda heard BBQs sizzling, conversations, someone watching Beauty and the Beast in Spanish-but this house was silent, as though it had been soundproofed. She registered a low humming coming from the side, like an air conditioner but not quite. Glancing up, she saw that none of the power lines connected to this house. None of the phone lines, either. A generator. Whoever lived here was living off the grid. All in all, the whole place was really cozy, if cozy meant creepy and cultish. And the woman who opened the front door? Exactly what you'd expect of someone creepy and cultish, Miranda thought. She had graying hair pulled back in a loose bun and was wearing a long skirt and kind of shapeless sweater. She could have been anywhere from thirty to sixty years old, it was impossible to tell because she was wearing a pair of huge bifocals with unflattering square frames that magnified her eyes and covered half her face. She looked completely harmless, like a schoolteacher who'd dedicated her life to caring for an aging relative and whose one indulgence was a secret crush on Mr. Rochester from Jane Eyre. Or almost like that. Like that was the look she'd been going for. But there was something wrong, some tiny thing that did not quite match, one tiny detail that wasn't right. So. Not. Your. Business. Miranda said good-bye, took her $1.00 tip-â€Å"Because you were really quite late, dear†-and drove away. She was half a block away when she slammed on the brakes and sprinted back to the house. Prom Nights from Hell Chapter Four I laughed. â€Å"But you girls go on, knock yourselves out,† he said. â€Å"I've actually got an errand to run.† â€Å"You're leaving?† Yun Sun said. â€Å"What about the pizza?† I said. He opened his wallet and laid a twenty-dollar bill on the coffee table. â€Å"It'll be here in thirty minutes. My treat.† Yun Sun shook her head. â€Å"And again I say: You're leaving?. You're not even staying to eat?† â€Å"There's something I need to do,† he said. My heart constricted. I ached to keep him here, even if just for a little longer. I darted back to the kitchen and pulled Madame Z's corsage-no, my corsage-out of my bag. â€Å"At least wait till I've made my wish,† I said. He looked amused. â€Å"Fine, wish away.† I hesitated. The den was warm and cozy, pizza was on the way, and I had the two greatest friends in the world. What else did I truly want? Duh, the grasping part of my brain told me. Prom, of course. I wanted Will to ask me to prom. Maybe it was selfish to have so much and still want more, but I pushed that line of reasoning away. Because look at him, I thought. Those kind brown eyes, that lopsided smile. Those ridiculously angelic curls. The entire sweetness and goodness that was Will. He hummed the Jeopardy! theme song. I raised the corsage. â€Å"I wish for the boy I love to ask me to prom,† I said. â€Å"And there you have it, folks!† Will cried. He was far too euphoric. â€Å"And what boy wouldn't want to take her to prom, our fabulous Frankie? Now we'll just have to wait and see, won't we, whether her wish will come-â€Å" Yun Sun cut him off. â€Å"Frankie? Are you okay?† â€Å"It moved,† I said, cringing away from the corsage, which I'd flung to the floor. My skin was clammy. â€Å"I swear to God, it moved when I made the wish. And that smell! Do you smell it?† â€Å"Noooo,† she said. â€Å"What smell?† â€Å"You smell it, Will. Don't you?† He grinned, still on whatever high he'd been on since†¦ well, since Madame Z warned him away from heights. A clap of thunder rumbled, and he shoved my shoulder. â€Å"Next you're going to blame the storm on the evil wish fairies, aren't you?† he said. â€Å"Or, no! You're going to go to bed tonight, and tomorrow you'll tell us you found a hunched and skulking creature on your comforter, smiling a twisted smile!† â€Å"Like rotting flowers,† I said. â€Å"You honestly don't smell it? You're not playing with me?† Will dug his keys out of his pocket. â€Å"See you on the flip side, homies. And, Frankie?† â€Å"What?† Another boom of thunder shook the house. â€Å"Don't give up hope,† he said. â€Å"Good things come to those who wait.† I watched through the window as he dashed to his truck. The rain was coming down in sheets. Then I turned to Yun Sun, a balloony feeling pushing everything else away. â€Å"Did you hear what he said?† I grabbed her hands. â€Å"Oh my God, do you think it means what I think it means?† â€Å"What else could it mean?† Yun Sun said. â€Å"He's going to ask you to prom! He's just†¦ I don't know. Trying to make a big production out of it!† â€Å"What do you think he's going to do?† â€Å"No idea. Hire a skywriter? Send a singing telegram?† I squealed. She squealed. We jumped about in a frenzy. â€Å"Got to hand it to you, the wish thing was brilliant,† she said. She flicked her finger to indicate giving Will the push he needed. â€Å"And the rotting flowers? Verrrry dramatic.† â€Å"I honestly did smell it, though,† I said. â€Å"Ha-ha.† â€Å"I did.† She looked at me and shook her head, amused. Then she looked at me again. â€Å"Well, it must have been your imagination,† she said. â€Å"I guess,† I said. I picked the corsage up off the floor, holding it gingerly between my thumb and forefinger. I took it to the bookshelf and dropped it behind a row of books, glad to have it out of sight. The next morning I trotted downstairs, hoping foolishly to find†¦ I don't know. Hundreds of M spelling out my name? Pink hearts sketched in silly string on the windows? Instead, I found a dead bird. Its tiny body lay on the welcome mat, as if it had flown into the door during the storm and bashed its brains in. I scooped it up with a paper towel and tried not to feel its soft weight as I delivered it to the outside trash bin. â€Å"I'm sorry, little bird, so pretty and sweet,† I said. â€Å"Fly to heaven.† I dropped in the corpse, and the lid slammed shut with a bang. I returned inside to the sound of the ringing phone. Probably Yun Sun, wanting an update. She'd left with Jeremy at eleven last night, after making me swear to tell her the minute Will made his bold move. â€Å"Hey, sweetie,† I said, after glancing at the caller ID and seeing that, yep, I was right. â€Å"No news yet-sorry.† â€Å"Frankie†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Yun Sun said. â€Å"I've been thinking about Madame Z, though. Her whole don't-mess-with-fate mumbo jumbo.† â€Å"Frankie-â€Å" â€Å"Because how could Will asking me to prom lead to anything bad?† I walked to the freezer and grabbed a box of frozen waffles. â€Å"Spit's going to fly from his mouth and land on me? He'll bring me flowers, and a bee'll zip out and sting me?† â€Å"Frankie, stop. Didn't you watch the morning news?† â€Å"On a Saturday? I don't think so.† Yun Sun made a gulping sound. â€Å"Yun Sun, are you crying?† â€Å"Last night†¦ Will climbed the watertower,† she said. â€Å"What?!† The watertower was easily three hundred feet tall, with a sign at the bottom prohibiting anyone from ascending. Will always talked about climbing to the top, but he was such a rule-follower that he never had. â€Å"And the railing must have been wet†¦ or maybe it was lightning, they don't yet know†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Yun Sun. What happened?† â€Å"He was spray painting something on the tower, the stupid idiot, and-â€Å" â€Å"Spray painting? Will?† â€Å"Frankie, will you shut up? He fell! He fell off the watertower!† I gripped the phone. â€Å"Jesus. Is he okay?† Yun Sun was unable to talk for sobbing. Which I understood, sure. Will was her friend, too. But I needed her to pull it together. â€Å"Is he in the hospital? Can I go visit him? Yun Sun!† There was wailing, and then a shuffling sound. Mrs. Yomiko took over. Prom Nights from Hell Chapter Four â€Å"You don't understand.† Lila tosses back her long blond hair. â€Å"He's not a tick, Mary. Sebastian loves me too much to bite me. But I know I can change his mind. Because he wants to be with me forever, as much as I want to be with him forever. I know it. And after tomorrow night, we will be together forever.† â€Å"What's tomorrow night?† Adam wants to know. â€Å"The prom,† I say woodenly. â€Å"Right,† Lila prattles on. â€Å"Sebastian's taking me. And though he doesn't know it yet, he's going to give in to me there. Just one bite and I'll have eternal life. Come on, you guys, how cool is that? Wouldn't you want to live forever? I mean, if you could?† â€Å"Not that way,† I say. Something inside of me aches. Aches for Lila, and aches for all the girls who've gone before her. And will come after her, too, if I don't do something about it. â€Å"He's meeting you at the dance?† I force myself to ask her. It's hard to speak, because all I want to do is cry. â€Å"Right,† Lila says. Her face still has the same vacant expression she wore inside the club, as well as earlier today in the lunchroom. â€Å"He'll never be able to resist me-not in my new Roberto Cavalli gown, with my neck all exposed beneath the silver light of the full moon†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"I think I'm going to throw up,† Ted volunteers. â€Å"No, you're not,† I say. â€Å"You're going to take Lila home. Here.† I reach into my satchel and pull out a crucifix and two containers of holy water, then hand them to him. â€Å"If Drake shows up-although I don't think he will-throw these at him. Then get yourself home, after you've dropped off Lila.† Ted looks down at what I've shoved into his hands. â€Å"Wait. That's it?† he wants to know. â€Å"We're just going to let him kill her?† â€Å"Not kill,† Lila corrects him cheerfully. â€Å"Turn me. Into one of his kind.† â€Å"We aren't going to do anything,† I say. â€Å"You guys are going to go home and leave this to me. I've got it under control. Just make sure Lila gets back safely. She should be all right until the dance. Evil spirits cannot enter an inhabited house unless invited!† I narrow my eyes at Lila. â€Å"You didn't invite him inside, did you?† â€Å"Whatever,† Lila says, tossing her head. â€Å"Like my dad wouldn't go too ballistic if he found a guy in my room.† â€Å"See? Go home. You, too,† I add, to Adam. Ted takes Lila by the arm and begins to lead her away. But Adam, to my surprise, stays where he is, his hands buried deep in his pockets. â€Å"Um,† I say to him. â€Å"Is there something I can do for you?† â€Å"Yes,† Adam says calmly. â€Å"You can start at the beginning. I want to know everything. Because if what you're telling me is true, if it weren't for me, you'd be a speck on the wall in the club back there. So start talking.† Adam If you had told me just an hour or two ago that I'd be ending my evening with a trip to Mary-from-U.S.-History-class's penthouse apartment over in the East Seventies†¦ well, I'd have told you that you were high. But that's exactly where I find myself, following Mary past her sleepy doorman (who doesn't raise so much as an eyebrow at her crossbow), and then up the elevator to her place, which is decorated in mid-nineteenth-century Victorian chic-at least as near as I can judge, considering all the furniture looks like it came out of one of those boring miniseries my mom likes to watch on PBS, featuring girls named Violet or Hortense or whatever. There are books everywhere-and not Dan Brown paperbacks, either, but big, heavy books, with titles like Demonology in Seventh-century Greece and A Guide to Necromancy. I look around, but I don't see a plasma screen or an LCD. Not even a regular TV. â€Å"Are your parents professors or something?† I ask Mary as she throws down the crossbow and heads to the kitchen, where she pulls open the fridge and reaches for two Cokes, one of which she hands to me. â€Å"Something like that,† Mary says. This is what she's been like the whole way to her place: not exactly brimming with the explanations. Not that it matters, though, since I already told her I'm not leaving until I get the whole story. The thing is, I really don't know what to think about all this so far. On the one hand, I'm relieved Drake isn't who I thought he was-Mary's ex-boyfriend. On the other hand†¦ a vampire?. â€Å"Come on,† Mary says, and I follow her because†¦ well, what else am I supposed to do? I don't know what I'm doing here. I don't believe in vampires. I think Lila's just gotten herself involved with one of those freaky goth dudes I saw on Law & Order that one time. Although Mary's question-â€Å"Then how do you explain his disappearance from the dance floor into thin air like that?† – bugs me. How did the guy do that? Then again, there are tons of questions like that one that I don't have the answers for. Like this new one that occurred to me: How can I get Mary to look at me the way Lila looked at that guy, Drake? Life is full of mysteries, as my dad likes to say, many of which are also wrapped up in enigmas. Mary leads me down a dark hallway toward a partly open door, from which light spills. She taps on the door, then says, â€Å"Dad? Can we come in?† A gruff voice says, â€Å"By all means.† And I follow Mary into the strangest room I've ever seen. At least in a penthouse apartment on the Upper East Side. It's a laboratory. There are test tubes and beakers and vials everywhere. Standing in front of some of them is a tall, white-haired-professor type in a bathrobe, messing around with a concoction in a clear container that's bright green and vigorously generating large amounts of smoke. The old dude looks up from this and smiles as Mary comes into the room, his green-eyed gaze-a lot like Mary's-darting toward me curiously. â€Å"Well, hello,† the guy says. â€Å"I see you've brought a friend home. I'm so glad. I've been thinking lately that you spend far too much time alone, young lady.† â€Å"Dad, this is Adam,† Mary says casually. â€Å"He sits behind me in U.S. History. We're going to my room to do homework.† â€Å"How nice,† Mary's father says. It doesn't seem to occur to him that the last thing a guy my age is likely to be doing in a girl's bedroom at two in the morning is homework. â€Å"Don't study too hard, now, children.† â€Å"We won't,† Mary says. â€Å"Come on, Adam.† â€Å"Good night, sir,† I say to Mary's dad, who beams at me before turning back to his smoking beaker. â€Å"Okay,† I say to Mary as she leads me down the hall once more, this time to her room†¦ which is surprisingly utilitarian for a girl's bedroom, containing only a large bed, a dresser, and a desk. Unlike in Veronica's room, everything is put away, except for a laptop and an MP3 player. I take a quick look at Mary's play list when she's busy rifling around in the closet for something. Mostly rock, some R&B, and a little rap. No emo, though. Thank God. â€Å"What's going on? What's your dad doing with all that stuff?† â€Å"Looking for a cure,† Mary says from the closet, her voice muffled. I've moved across the ornate Persian carpet toward her bed. There's a framed photo on her nightstand. It's of a pretty woman, squinting into the sunlight and smiling. Mary's mother. I don't know how I know it. I just do. â€Å"A cure for what?† I ask, picking up the photo for a closer look. Yep, there they are. Mary's lips. Which, I haven't been able to stop noticing, are kind of curled up at the ends. Even when she's mad. â€Å"Vampirism,† Mary says. She emerges from the closet holding a long red dress. It's wrapped in clear plastic from the dry cleaner's. â€Å"Uh,† I say, â€Å"I hate to be the one to tell you this, Mary. But there's no such thing as vampires. Or vampirism. Or whatever it is.† â€Å"Oh yeah?† The ends of Mary's mouth are curled up even more than usual. â€Å"Vampires were just made up by that guy.† She's laughing at me. I don't mind, though, because it's Mary. It's better than her ignoring me, which is what she's done for most of the time I've known her. â€Å"That guy who wrote Dracula. Right?† â€Å"Bram Stoker did not make up vampires,† Mary says, the smile vanishing. â€Å"He didn't even make up Dracula. Who's an actual historical figure, by the way.† â€Å"Yeah, but a dude who drinks blood and can turn into a bat? Come on.† â€Å"Vampires exist, Adam,† Mary says quietly. I like how she says my name. I like it so much that I don't even notice at first that she's staring at the photo I'm holding. â€Å"And so do their victims.† I follow the direction of her gaze. And nearly drop the photo. â€Å"Mary,† I say. Because it's all I can think of to say. â€Å"Your†¦ your mom? Is she†¦ did she†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"She's still alive,† Mary says, turning to throw the red dress, in its slippery clear plastic bag, onto the bed. â€Å"If you can call it living,† she adds, almost to herself. â€Å"Mary†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I say in a different tone of voice. I can't believe it. And yet I do. There's something in her face that makes it clear she's not lying. Also something that makes me long to wrap her in my arms. Which Veronica would say is sexist. But there you go. I let go of the lip I've started chewing. â€Å"Is that why your dad-â€Å" â€Å"He wasn't always like that,† she says, not looking at me. â€Å"He used to be different, when Mom was here. He†¦ he thinks he can find a chemical cure for it.† She sinks onto the bed beside the dress. â€Å"He doesn't want to believe that there's only one way to get her back. And that's killing the vampire who made her into one.† â€Å"Drake,† I say, sinking down onto the bed beside her. It all makes sense now. I guess. â€Å"No,† Mary says with a quick shake of her head. â€Å"His father. Who happened to stick with the original family name of Dracula. His son just thinks Drake sounds a little less pretentious and more modern.† â€Å"So†¦ why were you trying to kill Dracula's kid, if his dad is the one who†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I can't even bring myself to say it. Fortunately, I don't have to. Mary's shoulders are hunched. â€Å"If killing his only kid doesn't get Dracula to come out of hiding so I can kill him, too, I don't know what will.† â€Å"Won't that be, uh†¦ kind of dangerous?† I ask. I can't believe I'm sitting here talking about this. But I can't believe I'm in Mary-from-U.S.-History's bedroom, either. â€Å"I mean, isn't Dracula, like, the head of the whole operation?† â€Å"Yes,† Mary says, looking down at the photo I've laid between us. â€Å"And when he's gone, Mom will finally be free.† And Mary's dad won't have to worry about finding a cure for vampirism anymore, I think, but don't say out loud. â€Å"Why didn't Drake just, uh, turn Lila tonight?† I ask. Because this has been bothering me. Among other things. â€Å"I mean, back at the club?† â€Å"Because he likes to play with his food,† Mary says emotionlessly. â€Å"Just like his dad.†

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Flow Past Aerofoil

ME2135E Lab Report Flow Past an Aerofoil by LIN SHAODUN Lab Group Date A0066078X 2B 10th Feb 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXPERIMENTAL DATA – TABLE 1, 2, 3 2 GRAPH – ? 4 GRAPH – ? 5 GRAPH – 6 SAMPLE CALCULATION 7 DISCUSSION 8 1 EXPERIMENTAL DATA Table 1: Coordinate of Pressure Tapping Tapping No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Note: Table 2: Pressure Readings Manometer inclination: Pressure Readings Pitot Pressure Static Pressure Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric Temperature Stall angle: At the end of the experiment 474 mm 497 mm 500 mm 29 °C (mm) 0. 0 2. 5 5. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 (mm) 0. 000 3. 268 4. 443 5. 853 7. 172 7. 502 7. 254 6. 617 5. 04 4. 580 3. 279 0 0. 025 0. 049 0. 098 0. 197 0. 295 0. 394 0. 492 0. 591 0. 689 0. 787 0 0. 032 0. 044 0. 058 0. 071 0. 074 0. 071 0. 065 0. 056 0. 045 0. 032 At the beginning of the experiment 474 mm 497 mm 500 mm 29 °C 2 Manometer Readings at various Tapping 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 478 489 494 501 505 506 506 505 502 501 500 496 478 484 492 498 500 502 502 500 499 499 495 475 478 486 494 497 499 500 498 498 498 493 476 475 480 488 493 495 498 496 496 498 486 540 532 528 522 518 516 514 507 503 502 509 562 550 546 526 522 518 514 508 504 502 495 523 520 520 518 517 516 516 515 515 515 498 516 514 515 516 515 514 514 512 513 514Table 3: Pressure Coefficients ( ) Free Stream Velocity v v v ( ) Reynolds Number 3 Coefficients at various Tapping 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 -0. 956 -0. 478 -0. 261 0. 043 0. 217 0. 261 0. 261 0. 217 0. 087 0. 043 0. 000 -0. 174 -0. 956 -0. 696 -0. 348 -0. 087 0. 000 0. 087 0. 087 0. 000 -0. 043 -0. 043 0. 783 -1. 087 -0. 956 -0. 609 -0. 261 -0. 130 -0. 043 0. 000 -0. 087 -0. 087 -0. 087 2. 174 -1. 043 -1. 087 -0. 869 -0. 522 -0. 304 -0. 217 -0. 087 -0. 174 -0. 174 -0. 087 -0. 609 1. 739 1. 391 1. 217 0. 956 0. 783 0. 696 0. 609 0. 304 0. 130 0. 087 0. 391 2. 695 2. 74 2. 000 1. 130 0. 956 0. 783 0. 609 0. 348 0. 174 0. 087 -0. 217 1. 000 0. 869 0. 869 0. 783 0. 739 0. 696 0 . 696 0. 652 0. 652 0. 652 -0. 087 0. 696 0. 609 0. 652 0. 696 0. 652 0. 609 0. 609 0. 522 0. 565 0. 609 GRAPH ? 3. 0 2. 5 2. 0 1. 5 CPL , CPU against X/C @ 4 ° Cpl 3. 0 2. 5 CPL , CPU against X/C @ 8 ° Cpl Cpu 2. 0 1. 5 Cpu CPL ,CPU CPL ,CPU 1. 0 0. 5 0. 0 -0. 5 -1. 0 -1. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 6 0. 7 0. 8 0. 9 1. 0 1. 0 0. 5 0. 0 -0. 5 X/C -1. 0 -1. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 6 0. 7 0. 8 X/C 0. 9 1. 0 Area = 0. 437 Area = 0. 813 4 3. 2. 5 2. 0 1. 5 CPL , CPU against X/C @ 12 ° 3. 0 2. 5 CPL , CPU against X/C @ 16 ° Cpl Cpu 2. 0 1. 5 Cpl Cpu CPL ,CPU CPL ,CPU X/C 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 6 0. 7 0. 8 0. 9 1. 0 1. 0 0. 5 0. 0 -0. 5 -1. 0 -1. 5 1. 0 0. 5 0. 0 -0. 5 -1. 0 -1. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 6 0. 7 0. 8 X/C 0. 9 1. 0 Area = 0. 858 GRAPH ? Area = 0. 729 3. 0 2. 5 2. 0 1. 5 CPF , CPR against Y/C @ 4 ° Cpf Cpr 3. 0 2. 5 2. 0 1. 5 CPF , CPR against Y/C @ 8 ° Cpf Cpr CPF ,CPR 1. 0 0. 5 0. 0 -0. 5 -1. 0 CPU ,CPR Y/C 1. 0 0. 5 0. 0 -0 . 5 -1. 0 Y/C -1. 5 -0. 10 -0. 08 -0. 06 -0. 4 -0. 02 0. 00 0. 02 0. 04 0. 06 0. 08 0. 10 -1. 5 -0. 10 -0. 08 -0. 06 -0. 04 -0. 02 0. 00 0. 02 0. 04 0. 06 0. 08 0. 10 Area = 0. 032 Area = 0. 079 5 3. 0 2. 5 2. 0 CPF , CPR against Y/C @ 12 ° Cpf Cpr 3. 0 2. 5 2. 0 1. 5 CPF , CPR against Y/C @ 16 ° Cpf Cpr 1. 5 CPL ,CPU CPL ,CPU Y/C 1. 0 0. 5 0. 0 1. 0 0. 5 0. 0 -0. 5 -1. 0 -0. 5 -1. 0 Y/C -1. 5 -0. 10 -0. 08 -0. 06 -0. 04 -0. 02 0. 00 0. 02 0. 04 0. 06 0. 08 0. 10 -1. 5 -0. 10 -0. 08 -0. 06 -0. 04 -0. 02 0. 00 0. 02 0. 04 0. 06 0. 08 0. 10 Area = -0. 038 GRAPH Area = -0. 053 0. 437 0. 813 0. 858 0. 729 0. 32 0. 079 -0. 038 -0. 053 0. 434 0. 794 0. 847 0. 715 0. 062 0. 191 0. 141 0. 150 0. 439 0. 877 1. 316 1. 755 1. 8 1. 6 1. 4 1. 2 Cl Cd CL , CD against ? CL,CD, 2 1. 0 0. 8 0. 6 0. 4 0. 2 0. 0 2*Pi*a -0. 2 0. 0 2. 0 4. 0 6. 0 8. 0 ? 10. 0 12. 0 14. 0 16. 0 6 SAMPLE CALCULATION The sample calculation is based on Tapping 2 & Table 1: Coordinate of Pressure Tapping Table 3: Pressur e Coefficients 1. Air Density at 29 °C ( ) ( ) 2. Free Stream Velocity v v v ( ) 3. Reynolds Number 4. Pressure Coefficient ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 5. Lift and Drag Coefficient 7 DISCUSSION 1.Plot CL and CD against Please refer to Page 6. on the same graph. 2. Compare the experimentally measured CL with the Thin Aerofoil Theory prediction of . Discuss the similarity and discrepancy observed. The graph shows at small attack angle (4 ° and 8 °), the measured Lift coefficient is quite close to theoretical predicted value , this is because at small attack angle, air stream flows along the aerofoil surface smoothly without flow separation, which fulfills the basic assumption of Thin Aerofoil Theory, hence the experimental result matches with theoretical value well.When further increase attack angle, the streamline become highly curved, until at certain angle the streamline is no longer attached to the aerofoil surface and flow separation is occurred, massive turbulence wake appears on aero foil upper surface, which greatly reduce the lift. At this moment aerofoil is actually â€Å"blocking† the air flow, hence the Lift coefficient is significantly reduced after reach Stall angle, and can no long follow the theoretical predicted value . 3.What would you expect the lift and drag force to be when At , since the 0015 aerofoil is symmetrical, the pressure on upper and lower surface of aerofoil is the same, hence it will not produce any lift force. The of 0015 aerofoil is 0. 0147 at (when Re=80000), so there is small drag force even at 8 4. Does the why. which you have obtained gives the total drag on the aerofoil? Explain Total Drag of aerofoil is contributed by Parasite Drag and Induced Drag, the Parasite Drag is related to , while Induce drag is a byproduct of lift.Induce drag is a drag force occurs when aerofoil redirects the airflow coming at it. Refer to below diagram, the lift force is normal to chord of aerofoil, when decompose the lift force to horizontal an d vertical component, the horizontal component , which is in the same direction of drag. 5. Explain from the pressure distribution why there is a lift force. Using as example, the pressure distribution diagram shows the lower surface of aerofoil has lesser pressure drop ? igher pressure, while upper surface of aerofoil has much higher pressure drop, result in lower pressure. The integration of pressure drop along the aerofoil is the area under the curve, which represents force in a unit length of aerofoil, compare the area enclosed for upper and lower surface, we can see the there is a resultant lift force produced. 3. 0 2. 5 2. 0 1. 5 CPL , CPU against X/C @ 8 ° Cpl Cpu CPL ,CPU 1. 0 0. 5 0. 0 -0. 5 -1. 0 -1. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 0. 5 0. 6 0. 7 0. 8 0. 9 1. 0 X/C 9 6. Comment on the pressure distribution on the aerofoil when stall is reached. Using as example, when stall angle is reached, the pressure drop of upper surface become insignificant due to massive turbulent wake, h ence the lift force is greatly reduce and stall happens. 3. 0 2. 5 2. 0 1. 5 CPL , CPU against X/C @ 16 ° Cpl Cpu CPL ,CPU 1. 0 0. 5 0. 0 -0. 5 -1. 0 -1. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 4 0. 5 0. 6 0. 7 0. 8 X/C 0. 9 1. 0 10

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Write a descriptive account of your experience of caring for a patient Essay

Write a descriptive account of your experience of caring for a patient with a variety of needs - Essay Example Every morning I would find him lying on his bed, crying, or talking to himself or to his dead brother. It was obvious that he was in emotional pain. I would greet him with a smile and try to engage him to a few minutes of discussion. I felt that I was comforting him from his thoughts. At the same time, I was actively trying to assess his mood, his flow of thoughts and detect any changes that I had to report to the attending physician. Afterwards I had to give him the medications and make sure that he would take them. Mr. D had a Foley catheter installed, so that he didn’t have to get out of bed often. It was dangerous for him to get up unassisted, because he could fall, due to orthostatic hypotension. I always checked the catheter to make sure it was in the proper position, avoiding urine retention. Then I would check his temperature, pulse and ask about symptoms such as pain or discomfort at the lower abdomen, to make sure that he did not have a urinary tract infection (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 2006). I would also check the intravenous line, observing for signs of thrombophlebitis or skin inflammation at the catheter site. Afterwards, I would assist him to step on the scales, as I kept a constant watch over his weight, both for nutritional and fluid overload reasons. He would always ask me to help him move around the room, and sometimes it was obvious that he was in pain, mainly due to his severe hip osteoarthritis. He would ask me to hold him as he was standing at the window and stared at the view. At those moments, I couldn’t help thinking how lonely he was and how much pain he must have been experiencing, both emotional and somatic. I would then help him sit and eat the breakfast, as I was carefully and tactfully checking his room for dangerous items that he might use to hurt himself. I would come back one more time at noon, to check on him and help him eat lunch. I had to make sure that he would eat